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Measurable Properties of Gases – States of Matter – Chemistry Class 11


Do subscribe to Ekeeda Channel and press bell icon to get updates about latest engineering HSC and IIT JEE main and advanced videos Hello Friends in the last lecture we have said that there are three types of matter that is solid liquid and gas and now we are purposely talking about the gaseous state only so now let us see what are the measurable properties of the fertility s so before understanding what are the measurable properties of gas let me tell you that gas is something property which will which has no intermolecular force of attraction or they have less intermolecular force of attraction because of which we are now going to learn few properties which is based for only guesses the first one is especially mass mass is something which we can calculate for solid as well as liquid matías we could calculate for the gaseous also the next one is for volume the next is temperature the fourth is pressure fifth is density and the last is diffusion and this diffusion is related to the gaseous only so now let us learn one each one one by one and let us see what are and what are the properties of this mass volume temperature pressure density and diffusion so now talking about the first property that is mass so gas molecules have carrotastic mass which is extremely small because gas montes de plus they are very light molecules and hence they have weight but that weight is completely very much less than the overall molecules of the gas so therefore it the mass of one more of a gas molecule represents the molar mass of that particular gas molecule so the mass is expressed in again so the madonna it depends on the molar mass also because the molar mass is something which is related to weight and the monitor weight so the molar mass for a particular gas will be equals to that is if one more of particular gas if it contains that is 6.022 into ten bits two twenty three particles of that particular gas so that would be the molar mass of that particular substance so what we have to do is we have to multiply all a single bit office of sir of a particle of gas and we have to multiply by the ever greater number so that would let us to give the molar mass of the overall a particular gas molecule so this is the first thing that we have that the gas has a property of mass also we could also calculate the mass the mass is always and usually calculated in grams because it is being very negligible we can we can’t measure the gas in more quantity we can but usually it is expressed in grams now talking about the next one that is volume so it gas occupies entire volume available to it so this is what I want to explain that suppose if a in a room which is which is a very huge room and if you insert a gas molecules in it whew gasps moisture in it so then that gas molecules will occupy the overall space that is been present in the room or it will occupy the whole volume of that room so this is the property of the gases and yes they follow to cover the entire rooms volume has the volume of the gas is equal to the volume of the container in which it is being stored so that particular gas suppose if it is in kept in a particular volume so the overall volume of the gas will be equal to the volume of the container in which it is being kept so that is the thing of a property of a gas but it is not okay with that possibly could why because in liquid as you know that liquid will only occupy the shape of that container and we occupy a volume but not as gas because liquid settles down my gas doesn’t settle some it spits in the atmosphere or it spreads in the container equally and hence making the volume of the gas equal to that of the container so the volume is measured in cm cube or basically BM cubed so that is liters so this is how the volume of one of the gas has a particular unit that is CM cube and DM cube so these are the two properties that we have mentioned right now that is for mass and for volume let us move on towards the next one that is [Music] temperature so the temperature is measured for a guess basically the temperature is measure of a energy associated with a gaseous system and indicates the degree of hotness or coldness so temperature is what we’re we could measure if whether a particular thing is hot or good so by measuring that temperature we could predict that it is will hot or poor or the energy that is been associated with it so there is more energy it we could say that it is more hot if it is less energy then we could say that it is cool very much less energy then we could say it is cool so it is the temperature is related to the energy of that particular gaseous system which is associated with that system now talking about the next one that is the temperature is measured in degree sixes in degree Fahrenheit and Kelvin usually the SI unit of for the temperature has been said to be Kelvin but yes there are three measurable quantities or properties people measure that is a degree Celsius degree Fahrenheit and Kelvin so as we know that for Kelvin and for degree we know the relationship as suppose if we want to convert one degree Celsius into Kelvin so what we have to do is we have to add 273 with that one that we have vertically so ultimately we get 274 K so there’s a very tight relationship that we can convert a degree successive to Kelvin by adding 273 with that degree census that we have so by this we could convert in Kevin but talking about the next Fahrenheit then the relationship between temperature unit they both are related with each other that is the degree Celsius and Fahrenheit the both are having a relationship like this way that is if you want to convert a popular degree Celsius into Fahrenheit then what is you have that is degree Celsius divided by Phi which is equals to degree fan at minus 32 divided by nine so this gives a relationship between degree Celsius and Fahrenheit so the temperature for a particular gas are we measuring these three quantities that is these three factors that is the key senses five-night and can now moving towards the next one that is pressure so pressure is also a kind of property of a particular length of any yes that we usually measure so the first one is the pressure of the gas is the force exerted by the gas molecules per unit area on the walls of the container so gas is basically some kind of state where we know that it is a state of matter which doesn’t have a particular size of shape but is it occupies the shape of the container and most of all this particles they don’t have intermolecular force of attraction so what happens is they are very free with each other and they have a very long distance with each other so therefore they they collide with each other this molecules collide with each other and they collide in a random motion so making this more this molecules to exert pressure on the walls of the container in which it is been kept so as the pressure will be more then it will try to have a pressure on the wall of the container more or if you would say that if the number of particles of the gas are more then the more kind of pressure will be exerted on the walls of the container because the more the molecules then the mortar and the motion mozar in the motion moves the kinetic energy and the pressure will go on increasing if we increase the number of molecules in a fixed amount of or a or in a fixed volume of a container so now talking for the next that is the pressure is measured by a barometer or mercury manometer and expressed in terms of height of mercury that is Hg mercutio bhaiyyaji mercury column that is cm of Hg so let me give you a short examples actor how can we measure how can we convert the pressure from a manometer to atmosphere that we know that is we know that one atmosphere is nothing but something related to 760 mm Hg so 760 mmHg is basically the height of the mercury which occupies when the vapour pressure is when atmospheric of a particular liquid or of a particular gas so we also know that so this is being measured this atmospheric pressure is been measured with the unit of mm Hg so talking about the next one is they have also other units like Newton per meter square so this one atmosphere is nothing but 1.0 and 3 into 10 raise to 5 Newton per meter square or basically we could also say it as 1.0 and 3 into 10 raise to 5 Pascal so this is 1 atmosphere so we could also measure the that is property of a gas in terms of the pressure also so the more the number of gas soother it will exert more the pressure and hence this is the 1 atmospheric pressure that the atmosphere in which we live that is it has a common pressure of 760 mmHg but talking about the main when it comes to high pressure means the more the pressure means more the value of this 760 so the this will create a basically high pressure and high pressure which means it would contain more number of molecules and they will collide with each other and they have a kinetic energy also will be moving that case the temperature it’s been increased in a fixed amount of volume so this is these are the few properties that we have learnt right now but there is there are two properties they are also bent remaining that is density so not talking about that so basically density of a gas is the ratio of mass and its volume so we know that it’s a very common thing that we know that density is nothing but the ratio of mass and volumes but we could also determine the density of a gas by calculating its mass and the volume that is been occupied by that gas molecules so the assignment it is expressed is kg per meter cube so but it depends on pressure and temperature also so that is what I was expressing so it depends on pressure it depends on temperature and because of that it will also depends on the volume and because of which it has been the mass it it’s find that the mass we could calculate the mass body it also depends on the volume also and that volume will depend on pressure and temperature and because of that the density will be related to each other with that we could determine the density of a particular gas so yes the density of a gas varies appreciably with change in pressure and temperature this is what I want to explain suppose if pressure is being increased or keeping the volume to be constant so what will happen is if pressure is being increased then the the force of attraction between the two molecules will be more and but the more the force of attraction between the two molecules then it means things come together with each other and this will lead to us know that the density of that particular gas will be moved and because the NBS the both the pressure the more the dense is the gas and are talking about the next one that is temperature if we increase the temperature suppose what happens if we increase the temperature then the gas particles they collide with each other and they try to spread and if for they try to spread what happens is suppose the number of mass will be the same but the fingers they won’t be condensed with each other and they won’t be close to each other and is the density will go on decreasing but what happens is when we have a fixed volume and we increase the temperature so in that case what happens is actually if we increase the temperature then the volume tries to expand so in that case also by keeping the pressure is constant so we could say that the volume is fixed and the temperature is been increasing so in that case the pollution will be more and hence the pressure will be also get set to be more so therefore in that case basically the density can also be more and basically we also could say that if the volume of the gas is very much less then we could say that the density of the gas is moved because the density it depends on the mass and volume then less of the volume it occupies the more is the intensity and the more the mass the more is the density so volume should be very much less so as to determine whether the particular gas is highly there so not and if temperature increases and suppose if the pressure is been set constant and what happens is the volume increases so if the only increases then what happens any business density goes on decreasing so I it depends on pressure and temperature and from that only we could determine the density of a particular gas now talking about the last one that is diffusion so what is diffusion actually so the process of mixing of two or more gets to form homogeneous gas mixture is called as diffusion so diffusion is only related to gaseous molecules because what happens is when the two gaseous molecules they mix with each other so they mix in a homogeneous thing so because they’re mixing homogeneous time we cannot separate it and this kind of process of mixing to two kind of gas molecules all the same guess one gives with each other say kind of guess one with each other if you would say so what happens is they try to diffuse with leisure and this term is just for the gas and it is not only for two multiples to two types of gas what you give the couch it a little bit could introduce more gas molecules also it is a very logical thing because air is itself a component which consists of carbon dioxide oxygen nitrogen dioxide various yes so basically in this case diffusion always happens so because the two gets out two or more gets is they combine with each of them in factories like the chemical factories the smooth that has been produced so it get diffuses in the overall air and we could see the smoke because the smoke it at that point is very much dense and what happens is if we spreads then it spreads the entire environment and we could see that the density get decreases because the volume is before and because of that what happens is the diffusion takes place because they mix with every gas that are being around them and their form a homogeneous solution yes but yes the more thing also then the rate of diffusion depends on the molar mass of the gas so they are being related to each other in this way where the rate of diffusion is equals to volume of the gas diffuse divided by the time required for the diffusion the more the less time required to get if used in a particular volume means higher is the rate of diffusion the more the speed of getting mixed with the environment or getting mixed in a volume of the gas so more will be the rate of diffusion so you know for example in volcanoes volcanoes in working reactions also what happens in the smooth get some it up later and we could see that density so that doesn’t homogeneous Lee makes you the N worm and actually we could see that dense smoke or the gases that produces there so at that point what happens is the rate of diffusion is less but we could increase that also by increasing volume with the volume is more so at that point we could see that the rate of diffusion is also more because it depends on the volume of gas diffuse the volume is more than the rate of diffusion will also be more and if it requires less time to get diffuse then also we could say that the rate of diffusion is also moved so the unit is nothing but the cm cube per second that is the unit of because volume has the unit of CM q by that of the time has wound of second so this is the unit of diffusion so this is where the few properties where we have meant in a very thorough manner and we understood each and every concept of the properties of the gases so thank you friends for watching this video I hope you have liked this video and you have got to know various concepts and share this with your friends and yes don’t forget to subscribe you get a channel thank you so much

2 Comments

doris :D

Aug 8, 2018, 12:03 pm Reply

Sirrrr wts wrong with ur language??

Ekeeda

Mar 3, 2019, 1:12 pm Reply

Hello Friends,

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